Punjab girl

Punjab Girl Alia Bhatt she plays a Delhi girl from a rich family.

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Punjab girl

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The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Punjabi kingdom:. After Ranjit Singh's death in , the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.

The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab.

Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown. The independence of India and Pakistan, and the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire.

However, the growth of Muslim nationalism led to the All India Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the elections. As Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs increased substantially.

Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority.

Along with the province of Bengal, Punjab was partitioned on religious lines — the Muslim-majority West becoming part of the new Muslim state of Pakistan, and the Hindu and Sikh East remaining in India.

Partition was accompanied by massive violence on both sides, claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. By the s, Indian Punjab underwent reorganisation as demands for a linguistic Punjabi state increased in line with the policy of linguistic states that had been applied in the rest of India.

The Hindi-speaking areas were formed into the states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana respectively, leaving a Punjabi speaking majority in the state of Punjab.

In the s, Sikh separatism combined with popular anger against the Indian Army 's counter-insurgency operations especially Operation Bluestar led to violence and disorder in Indian Punjab, which only subsided in the s.

Indian Punjab remains one of the most prosperous of India's states and is considered the "breadbasket of India. Today Punjabis continue to be the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, accounting for half of the country's population.

Punjabis are also found in large communities in the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi , located in the Sindh province.

While the total population of Punjab is million, [48] ethnic Punjabis are numbered as 91,, [49] [50] which makes up The Punjabis found in Pakistan belong to groups known as baradari.

In addition, Punjabi society is divided into two divisions, the zamindar groups or qoums, traditionally associated with farming and the moeens, who are traditionally artisans.

People from neighbouring regions, such as Kashmiris , Pashtuns and Baluch , also form size-able portion of the Punjabi population.

Religious homogeneity remains elusive as a predominant Sunni population with Shia , Ahmadiyya and Christian minorities.

A variety of related sub-groups exist in Pakistan and are often considered by many Pakistani Punjabis to be simply regional Punjabis including the Seraikis who overlap and are often considered transitional with the Sindhis.

The recent definition of Punjabi people, in Pakistani Punjab , is not based on racial classification , common ancestry or endogamy , but based on geographical and cultural basis.

The Punjabi-speaking people make 2. Sikhs are largely concentrated in the modern-day state of Punjab forming Like the Punjabi Muslim society, these various castes are associated with particular occupations or crafts.

Indian Punjab is also home to small groups of Muslims and Christians. The Indian censuses record the native languages, but not the descent of the citizens.

Linguistic data cannot accurately predict ethnicity: for example, Punjabis make up a large portion of Delhi's population but many descendants of the Punjabi Hindu refugees who came to Delhi following the partition of India now speak Hindi as their first language.

Thus, there is no concrete official data on the ethnic makeup of Delhi and other Indian states. The Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers to many parts of the world.

In the early 20th century, many Punjabis began settling in the United States , including independence activists who formed the Ghadar Party.

The most populous areas being London, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow. There are also large communities in East Africa including the countries of Kenya , Uganda and Tanzania.

Of recent times many Punjabis have also moved to Italy. According to Pippa Virdee, the partition of India and Pakistan has shadowed the sense of loss of what used to be a homeland nation for the Punjabi people in the Indian subcontinent and its diaspora.

Indigenous population flourished in this region, leading to a developed civilisation in 5th to 4th millennium BC, [64] the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

Also, Buddhist remnants have been found like that of the Mankiala which corroborate the Buddhist background of this region as well.

The remains of the ancient city of Taxila , [65] and many ornaments that have been found in this region, suggests that, [66] one of the centres of Indus Valley Civilization was established at many parts of Punjab, most notably Taxila and Harappa , [67] Punjab became a center of early civilisation from around BC.

According to Historians this region was ruled by many small kingdoms and tribes around 4th and 5th BCE.

The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus [69] [70] and he fought a famous Battle of the Hydaspes [71] against Alexander.

His kingdom, known as Pauravas , was situated between Hydaspes modern Jhelum and Acesines modern day Chenab.

Taxiles Ambhi , another local king from Punjab, wanted to defeat his eastern adversary Porus in a turf war and he invited Alexander the Great to defeat Porus.

This marked the first intrusion of the West in the Indian subcontinent and Indus valley in general. But such was the valor of Porus and his kingdom forces in Punjab, that despite being defeated, he was appreciated by Alexander the Great for his skill and valor and he was granted further territories in the North.

In less than ten years an Indian king Chandragupta Maurya [72] defeated the forces and conquered the Northern Indian regions up to the Kabul river in modern-day Afghanistan.

Alexander mostly ruled this land with the help of local allies like Porus. Centuries later, areas of the Punjab region were ruled by local kings followed by the Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Delhi Sultanate , Mughals and others.

Some of the Muslims are said to have settled in the region and adopted the local culture. Centuries later, the Ghaznavids introduced aspects of foreign Persian and Turkic culture in Punjab.

The earliest written Punjabi dates back to the writing of Sufi Muslim poets of the 11th Century. Its literature spread Punjab's unique voice of peace and spirituality to the entire civilisation of the region.

Regions of North India and Punjab were annexed into the Afghan Durrani Empire later on in , being a vulnerable target. The region was lost to the Durranis, however, after the Third Battle of Panipat.

Ranjit took a leading role in organising a Sikh militia and got control of the Punjab region from Zaman Shah Durrani. Ranjit started a Punjabi military expedition to expand his territory.

Two years later, in , Ranjit Singh died and his son took over control of the empire. By the British took over control of the Punjab region after defeating the Sikhs in the Anglo-Sikh wars , [77] [78] establishing their rule over the region for around the next years as a part of the British Raj.

Many Sikhs and Punjabis later pledged their allegiance to the British, serving as sepoys native soldiers within the Raj.

In ancient and the medieval era, before the arrival of Islam into the Indian subcontinent, Hinduism and Buddhism were the predominant religions in the Punjab region.

After Islamic conquest, conversions began leading to a mixed population of Muslims and Hindus, and Buddhism vanished. The region of Punjab is the birthplace of one monotheistic religion that is known as Sikhism.

Due to religious tensions, emigration between Punjabi people started far before the partition and dependable records.

Today the majority of Pakistani Punjabis follow Islam with a small Christian minority, and less Sikh and Hindu populations, while the majority of Indian Punjabis are either Sikhs or Hindus with a Muslim minority.

Punjab is also the birthplace of Sikhism and the movement Ahmadiyya. Following the independence of Pakistan and the subsequent partition of British India , a process of population exchange took place in as Muslims began to leave India and headed to the newly created Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs left Pakistan [91] for the newly created state of India.

The province became an important centre and Lahore was made into a second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region.

Missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region also played the dominant role in bringing about conversion.

Sufis also comprised the educated elites of the Punjab for many centuries. The Mughals controlled the region from until and would also lavish some parts of the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi Mosque , both situated in Lahore.

The Muslim establishment in the Punjab occurred over a period of several centuries lasting until towards the end of the British Raj and the division of the Punjab province between Pakistan and India in August After the independence of Pakistan in , the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Pakistan.

Muslim Punjabis in Pakistan use the Persian script to write the Punjabi language. Today, Punjabi Hindus are mostly found in Indian Punjab where they make around Many of the Hindu Punjabis in the Indian capital Delhi are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from various parts of Western Pakistani Punjab.

Some Punjabi Hindus can also be found in the bordering areas of Jammu and Rajasthan as well as the recent cosmopolitan migrants in other big cities like Mumbai.

Some still have managed to retain the Punjabi dialects spoken in Western Punjab, but many have also adopted Hindi. Sikhi from Sikh , meaning a "disciple", or a "learner", is a monotheistic religion and nation originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent during the 15th century.

Gurmukhi is the writing script used by Sikhs and for scriptures of Sikhism. It is used in official documents in parts of India and elsewhere. Missionaries accompanied the colonising forces from Portugal , France , and Great Britain.

Christianity was mainly brought by the British rulers of India in the later 18th and 19th century [ citation needed ]. The total number of Punjabi Christians in Pakistan is approximately 2,, and , in Indian Punjab.

Of these, approximately half are Roman Catholic and half Protestant. Many of the modern Punjabi Christians are descended from converts during British rule; initially, conversions to Christianity came from the "upper levels of Punjab society, from the privileged and prestigious", including "high caste" Hindu families, as well as Muslim families.

The vast majority were converted from the Mazhabi Sikh communities of Punjab, and to a lesser extent Hindu Churas; under the influence of enthusiastic British army officers and Christian missionaries.

Consequently, since the independence they are now divided between Pakistani Punjab and Indian Punjab. Large numbers of Mazhabi Sikhs were also converted in the Moradabad district and the Bijnor district [] of Uttar Pradesh.

Rohilkhand saw a mass conversion of its entire population of Mazhabi Sikhs into the Methodist Church. Punjabi culture is the culture of the Punjab region.

It is one of the oldest and richest cultures in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The Punjabi culture is the culture of the Punjabi people, who are now distributed throughout the world.

The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas include Punjabi poetry, philosophy, spirituality, artistry, dance, music, cuisine, military weaponry, architecture, languages, traditions, values and history.

In the traditional Punjabi culture women look after the household and children. Also women in general work in agricultural fields and manage the finances of the household.

Moreover, Punjabi women fought in the past along with the men when the time arose. There are notable poets and painters among Punjabi women including Amrita Pritam and Amrita Shergill.

Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan and eleventh most spoken language in India. According to the Ethnologue estimate, [] there are million native speakers of the Punjabi language, which makes it the ninth most widely spoken language in the world.

According to a estimate, [] [ original research? Punjabis are an ethno-linguistic group with Indo-Aryan roots, [] and are culturally related to the other Indo-Aryan peoples of the Indian subcontinent.

There are an estimated million Punjabi speakers around the world. In South Asia, they are the second largest ethnic group after the Bengali people.

The main language of the Punjabi people is Punjabi and its associated dialects, which differ depending on the region of Punjab the speaker is from; there are notable differences in the Lahnda languages , spoken in the Pakistani Punjab.

In the Pakistani Punjab, the vast majority still speak Punjabi, even though the language has no governmental support.

In the Indian Punjab, most people speak Punjabi. English is sometimes used, and older people who lived in the undivided Punjab may be able to speak and write in Urdu.

The Punjabi languages have always absorbed numerous loanwords from surrounding areas and provinces and from English. Punjabi cuisine has a wide range of dishes and enjoys world wide popularity.

Many entrepreneurs have built large personal fortunes by investing in the sector promoting Punjabi cuisine which uses a uniquely appealing spice palette.

Some of the most popular dishes include Butter Chicken , Tandoori chicken , Dal makhni , chicken tikka lababdar, Saron da saag and stuffed or un stuffed naans a type of unleavened bread.

Gandhara existed since the time of the Rigveda c. Gandhara was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. The language used the Kharosthi script, which died out about the 4th century.

However Punjabi , Kohistani , and Hindko are derived from the Prakrit that were spoken in Gandhara and its surrounding areas.

Having conquered Drangiana , Arachosia , Gedrosia and Seistan in ten days, Alexander the Great known in Urdu as 'Sikander-e-Azam' crossed the Hindu Kush and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls.

However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains.

Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii mountaineers , who offered vigorous resistance, but were subdued.

Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa at the site of modern-day Mong was situated.

A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan , who were very skilful in war. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing 17, Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala present-day Sialkot was razed to the ground.

The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought astride the Jhelum River in western Punjab against the regional chieftain Porus, and the Siege of the Malli Tribe which occurred at the confluence of the Indus and Hydaspes Rivers near modern Multan during which Alexander suffered a near-fatal arrow wound.

Alexander left Punjab in B. The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC.

The city of Sirkap founded by Demetrius combines Greek and Indian influences without signs of segregation between the two cultures. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander Milinda.

He had his capital at Sagala in the Punjab present-day Sialkot. The Indo-Greeks were involved with local faiths, particularly with Buddhism, but also with Hinduism'.

Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and their rule, especially that of Menander , has been remembered as benevolent. Maues first conquered Gandhara and Taxila around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death.

The Indo-Scythians ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest south Asia, based near Taxila, with two great Satraps, one in Mathura in the east, and one in Surastrene Gujarat in the southwest.

The Indo-Scythians seem to have been followers of Buddhism, and many of their practices apparently continued those of the Indo-Greeks.

Gondophares , founder of the Indo-Parthian kingdom, was a ruler of Seistan in what is today eastern Iran, probably a vassal or relative of the Apracarajas.

Around 20—10 BCE, he made conquests in the former Indo-Scythian kingdom, perhaps after the death of the important ruler Azes.

Gondophares became the ruler of areas comprising Arachosia, Seistan, Sindh, Punjab, and the Kabul valley. The temple of Jandial , Taxila is usually interpreted as a Zoroastrian fire temple from the period of the Indo-Parthians.

The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. Around 75 CE under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises they gained control of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan.

The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Gandhara's culture peaked during the reign of the Kushan ruler Kanishka the Great — Buddhist art spread from Gandhara to other parts of Asia.

Under Kanishka, Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrims eager to view the monuments associated with many Jatakas.

The Hephthalite Huns captured Gandhara around , and did not adopt Buddhism, but in fact "perpetrated frightful massacres.

The Punjabis followed different faiths throughout history, mainly Hinduism and Buddhism , [42] however Islam had the biggest impact on the region culturally.

Punjab later became a part of different Muslim Empires consisting mostly of Afghans and Turkic peoples in co-operation with some local Punjabi tribes and others.

Middle Eastern and Central Asian soldiers, merchants, scholars, administrators, architects, theologians and Sufis migrated from the rest of the Islamic world to the expanding sultanates in the Indian subcontinent with migrations increasing rapidly after the Mongol invasions as the sultanates began to be seen as a safe haven and refuge for Muslims fleeing Mongol persecution.

The Punjab region was therefore gradually Islamized due to Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab; one such saint was Data Ganj Baksh , an 11th-century Iranian Sayyid mystic from Ghazni now buried at Data Darbar in Lahore.

He is widely considered to be one of the earliest proponents of Punjabi as the language of poetry. The area subsequently came under various other Islamic rulers until finally becoming part of the Mughal Empire in The Punjab region rose to significance in the Mughal Empire when Lahore became the capital for the royal family in , [44] the legacy of which is seen today in its rich display of Mughal architecture all over modern day Punjab, Pakistan.

The Mughals left an indelible mark on the landscape of Punjab from to by commissioning the construction of great gardens, forts, tombs, baths and mosques such as the Shalimar Gardens , [45] Lahore Fort , Tomb of Jahangir , Tomb of Nur Jahan , Shahi Hammam , Akbari Sarai , Wazir Khan Mosque , and the Badshahi Mosque , all situated in Lahore, as well as architectural projects such as Hiran Minar and others elsewhere in Punjab.

After Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal empire in , Mughal authority significantly weakened allowing swaths of what is now Punjab to be invaded in by Nader Shah's commader Ahmad Shah Durrani who was now ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire.

Lahore , Multan , Dera Ghazi Khan , Kashmir and other subahs ex-Mughal provinces on the south and eastern side of Peshawar were under Maratha rule for the most part.

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on , Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas and reversed their gains in the regions of Punjab and Kashmir by re-consolidating control over them.

In the mid-fifteenth century, the religion of Sikhism was born. During the Mughal empire , many Hindus increasingly adopted Sikhism.

The Sikhs became a formidable military force after the death of Aurangzeb in and challenged the Mughals and later the Durrani Afghans for power in Punjab.

In Ranjit Singh , ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl , defeated the Bhangi Misl and captured Lahore thereby proclaiming himself as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at the age of Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and formed a sophisticated Sikh Empire which lasted from to Ranjit Singh modernized his Sikh Khalsa army by using Franco-British principles and by employing veterans of the Napoleonic Wars to train the infantry in European style.

Ranjit Singh expanded his empire so that by his death in his empire included most of Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir. Ranjit Singh was not without opponents who challenged his authority in the regions he had conquered.

In Nawab Muzaffar Khan was killed by the Sikhs at the Battle of Multan after putting up stout resistance for many years. Azim Khan was the governor of Kashmir from until when Ranjit Singh captured it for himself.

In Azim Khan took control of Peshawar and with support from Pashtun tribesmen faced off against the encroaching Khalsa army in the Battle of Nowshera.

He abandoned his troops whilst they regrouped to continue fighting until they were defeated. Azim Khan retreated to Kabul where he died shortly thereafter due to grief.

Syed Ahmad Barelvi was an Indian Muslim who declared Jihad against the Sikhs by garnering support from local Pashtun tribesmen and attempted to create an Islamic state with strict enforcement of Sharia.

Barelvi's movement weakened after there was infighting with his Pashtun followers and in a major battle near the town of Balakot in , Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail Shaheed with volunteer Muslims were defeated and killed by the Sikh Army.

From about he began a series of rebellions against the Sikhs which continued throughout his lifetime inflicting defeats on the Sikhs whilst also losing territory to them before being poisoned in James Abbott , British officer and deputy commissioner at Hazara in , described Mir Painda Khan as "a chief renowned on the border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs".

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state.

Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War ; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation in of territory south of the Satluj to British India.

Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan , while East Punjab became a part of modern-day India.

This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees. The part of the Punjab now in Pakistan once formed a major region of British Punjab, and was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs up to apart from the Muslim majority.

Migration between Eastern and Western Punjab was continuous before independence. After independence, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Western Punjab and across Pakistan , having fled pogroms that almost entirely depopulated Eastern Punjab of its Muslim population.

Since the s, Punjab industrialised rapidly. Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis.

Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result, most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families.

In the s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. To address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in It was merged into a single province West Pakistan.

In , after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh , Punjab again became a province. Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of and Since the s Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta.

It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in , has helped pacify the situation.

Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib.

Starting in the s, large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora , resulting in growing economic ties between Punjab and these countries.

Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan with an area of , square kilometres 79, square miles. Punjab borders Jammu and Kashmir in the north, and the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east.

The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. The undivided Punjab region was home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistan's Punjab province.

It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad.

Punjab's landscape consists mostly consists of fertile alluvial plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , and Sutlej rivers which traverse Punjab north to south — the fifth of the "five waters" of Punjab, the Beas River , lies exclusively in the Indian state of Punjab.

The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Punjab also includes several mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains in the southwest part of the province, the Margalla Hills in the north near Islamabad , and the Salt Range which divides the most northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar Plateau , from the rest of the province.

Sparse deserts can be found in southern Punjab near the border with Rajasthan and near the Sulaiman Range. Punjab also contains part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts.

Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early s, the weather pattern has been irregular.

The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot.

In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season , referred to as barsat , which brings relief in its wake.

The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October. Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years.

Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons: [60]. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north.

The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well, and feature a much cooler and wetter climate, with snowfall common at higher altitudes.

The province is home to over half the population of Pakistan , and is the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity , and the most populous outside China or India.

In Pakistani Punjab, non-tribal social distinctions are primarily based on traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans , as opposed to rigid social stratifications.

Punjab has the lowest poverty rates in Pakistan, although a divide is present between the northern and southern parts of the province.

The major and native language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi which is written in the Shahmukhi script - one of the oldest scripts used for writing Punjabi and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country.

Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab but is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at the national level.

Saraiki is mostly spoken in south Punjab, [65] and Pashto , spoken in some parts of north west Punjab, especially in Attock District and Mianwali District near Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish.

Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language [66] [67] [68] In August , the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council IWC and World Punjabi Congress WPC organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.

Hafiz Saeed , chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah JuD has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue.

The population of Punjab Pakistan is estimated to be The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2. The Government of Punjab is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore , the capital of the Punjab Province.

The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore in eastern Pakistan.

The Assembly was established under Article of the Constitution of Pakistan as having a total of seats, with 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims.

There are 48 departments in Punjab government. The Chief Secretary in turn, reports to the Chief Minister. In addition to these departments, there are several Autonomous Bodies and Attached Departments that report directly to either the Secretaries or the Chief Secretary.

When the divisions were restored as a tier of government in , a tenth division — Sheikhupura Division — was created from part of Lahore Division.

Punjab has the largest economy in Pakistan, contributing most to the national GDP. The province's economy has quadrupled since It is especially dominant in the service and agriculture sectors of Pakistan's economy.

With its contribution ranging from It is also a major manpower contributor because it has the largest pool of professionals and highly skilled technically trained manpower in Pakistan.

Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialised province of Pakistan; [13] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods.

Despite its tropical wet and dry climate , extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world.

Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane , millet , corn , oilseeds , pulses , vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo.

Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting.

Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.

Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. There are 39, small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14, The ginning industries are 6, There are 7, units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.

Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.

Home Punjab Girl. Punjab Girl. All News Videos. Punjab School Principal, Teacher Suspended In Girls' Stripping Incident India News Press Trust of India Tuesday November 6, The incident, which came to light last week, was brought to the chief minister's notice after a video showed students crying and complaining that they had been stripped by the teachers in the school premises.

Headmaster arrested for rape, sexual assault of girl students in Punjab India News Press Trust of India Thursday March 27, Police today booked the headmaster of a school housed in a religious place at Malerkotla near Sangrur in Punjab for allegedly sexually assaulting five girl students.

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Earlier this month, a Class 10 student in Kerala's Malappuram district had set herself on fire as she was unable to attend online classes.

She had neither a TV nor a smartphone. Promoted Listen to the latest songs , only on JioSaavn. Schools and colleges across the country were closed in March ahead of a nationwide lockdown imposed by the central government to slow the spread of the coronavirus pandemic.

If you need support or know someone who does, please reach out to your nearest mental health specialist.

Full Coverage. Highlights Class 11 student hung herself in her house: Police The victim was the daughter of a farm labourer Family could not buy a smartphone due to poor financial condition.

Coronavirus Punjab suicide. The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Gandhara's culture peaked during the reign of the Kushan ruler Kanishka the Great — Buddhist art spread from Gandhara to other parts of Asia.

Under Kanishka, Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrims eager to view the monuments associated with many Jatakas.

The Hephthalite Huns captured Gandhara around , and did not adopt Buddhism, but in fact "perpetrated frightful massacres. The Punjabis followed different faiths throughout history, mainly Hinduism and Buddhism , [42] however Islam had the biggest impact on the region culturally.

Punjab later became a part of different Muslim Empires consisting mostly of Afghans and Turkic peoples in co-operation with some local Punjabi tribes and others.

Middle Eastern and Central Asian soldiers, merchants, scholars, administrators, architects, theologians and Sufis migrated from the rest of the Islamic world to the expanding sultanates in the Indian subcontinent with migrations increasing rapidly after the Mongol invasions as the sultanates began to be seen as a safe haven and refuge for Muslims fleeing Mongol persecution.

The Punjab region was therefore gradually Islamized due to Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab; one such saint was Data Ganj Baksh , an 11th-century Iranian Sayyid mystic from Ghazni now buried at Data Darbar in Lahore.

He is widely considered to be one of the earliest proponents of Punjabi as the language of poetry. The area subsequently came under various other Islamic rulers until finally becoming part of the Mughal Empire in The Punjab region rose to significance in the Mughal Empire when Lahore became the capital for the royal family in , [44] the legacy of which is seen today in its rich display of Mughal architecture all over modern day Punjab, Pakistan.

The Mughals left an indelible mark on the landscape of Punjab from to by commissioning the construction of great gardens, forts, tombs, baths and mosques such as the Shalimar Gardens , [45] Lahore Fort , Tomb of Jahangir , Tomb of Nur Jahan , Shahi Hammam , Akbari Sarai , Wazir Khan Mosque , and the Badshahi Mosque , all situated in Lahore, as well as architectural projects such as Hiran Minar and others elsewhere in Punjab.

After Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal empire in , Mughal authority significantly weakened allowing swaths of what is now Punjab to be invaded in by Nader Shah's commader Ahmad Shah Durrani who was now ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire.

Lahore , Multan , Dera Ghazi Khan , Kashmir and other subahs ex-Mughal provinces on the south and eastern side of Peshawar were under Maratha rule for the most part.

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on , Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas and reversed their gains in the regions of Punjab and Kashmir by re-consolidating control over them.

In the mid-fifteenth century, the religion of Sikhism was born. During the Mughal empire , many Hindus increasingly adopted Sikhism.

The Sikhs became a formidable military force after the death of Aurangzeb in and challenged the Mughals and later the Durrani Afghans for power in Punjab.

In Ranjit Singh , ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl , defeated the Bhangi Misl and captured Lahore thereby proclaiming himself as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at the age of Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and formed a sophisticated Sikh Empire which lasted from to Ranjit Singh modernized his Sikh Khalsa army by using Franco-British principles and by employing veterans of the Napoleonic Wars to train the infantry in European style.

Ranjit Singh expanded his empire so that by his death in his empire included most of Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir.

Ranjit Singh was not without opponents who challenged his authority in the regions he had conquered. In Nawab Muzaffar Khan was killed by the Sikhs at the Battle of Multan after putting up stout resistance for many years.

Azim Khan was the governor of Kashmir from until when Ranjit Singh captured it for himself. In Azim Khan took control of Peshawar and with support from Pashtun tribesmen faced off against the encroaching Khalsa army in the Battle of Nowshera.

He abandoned his troops whilst they regrouped to continue fighting until they were defeated. Azim Khan retreated to Kabul where he died shortly thereafter due to grief.

Syed Ahmad Barelvi was an Indian Muslim who declared Jihad against the Sikhs by garnering support from local Pashtun tribesmen and attempted to create an Islamic state with strict enforcement of Sharia.

Barelvi's movement weakened after there was infighting with his Pashtun followers and in a major battle near the town of Balakot in , Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail Shaheed with volunteer Muslims were defeated and killed by the Sikh Army.

From about he began a series of rebellions against the Sikhs which continued throughout his lifetime inflicting defeats on the Sikhs whilst also losing territory to them before being poisoned in James Abbott , British officer and deputy commissioner at Hazara in , described Mir Painda Khan as "a chief renowned on the border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs".

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state.

Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War ; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation in of territory south of the Satluj to British India.

Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan , while East Punjab became a part of modern-day India.

This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees. The part of the Punjab now in Pakistan once formed a major region of British Punjab, and was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs up to apart from the Muslim majority.

Migration between Eastern and Western Punjab was continuous before independence. After independence, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Western Punjab and across Pakistan , having fled pogroms that almost entirely depopulated Eastern Punjab of its Muslim population.

Since the s, Punjab industrialised rapidly. Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis.

Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result, most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families.

In the s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. To address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in It was merged into a single province West Pakistan.

In , after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh , Punjab again became a province. Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of and Since the s Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta.

It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in , has helped pacify the situation.

Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib.

Starting in the s, large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora , resulting in growing economic ties between Punjab and these countries.

Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan with an area of , square kilometres 79, square miles.

Punjab borders Jammu and Kashmir in the north, and the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east. The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region.

The undivided Punjab region was home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistan's Punjab province. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad.

Punjab's landscape consists mostly consists of fertile alluvial plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , and Sutlej rivers which traverse Punjab north to south — the fifth of the "five waters" of Punjab, the Beas River , lies exclusively in the Indian state of Punjab.

The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Punjab also includes several mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains in the southwest part of the province, the Margalla Hills in the north near Islamabad , and the Salt Range which divides the most northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar Plateau , from the rest of the province.

Sparse deserts can be found in southern Punjab near the border with Rajasthan and near the Sulaiman Range. Punjab also contains part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts.

Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early s, the weather pattern has been irregular.

The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot.

In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season , referred to as barsat , which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.

Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years. Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons: [60].

Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well, and feature a much cooler and wetter climate, with snowfall common at higher altitudes.

The province is home to over half the population of Pakistan , and is the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity , and the most populous outside China or India.

In Pakistani Punjab, non-tribal social distinctions are primarily based on traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans , as opposed to rigid social stratifications.

Punjab has the lowest poverty rates in Pakistan, although a divide is present between the northern and southern parts of the province.

The major and native language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi which is written in the Shahmukhi script - one of the oldest scripts used for writing Punjabi and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country.

Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab but is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at the national level.

Saraiki is mostly spoken in south Punjab, [65] and Pashto , spoken in some parts of north west Punjab, especially in Attock District and Mianwali District near Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish.

Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language [66] [67] [68] In August , the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council IWC and World Punjabi Congress WPC organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.

Hafiz Saeed , chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah JuD has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue.

The population of Punjab Pakistan is estimated to be The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2. The Government of Punjab is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore , the capital of the Punjab Province.

The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore in eastern Pakistan.

The Assembly was established under Article of the Constitution of Pakistan as having a total of seats, with 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims.

There are 48 departments in Punjab government. The Chief Secretary in turn, reports to the Chief Minister. In addition to these departments, there are several Autonomous Bodies and Attached Departments that report directly to either the Secretaries or the Chief Secretary.

When the divisions were restored as a tier of government in , a tenth division — Sheikhupura Division — was created from part of Lahore Division.

Punjab has the largest economy in Pakistan, contributing most to the national GDP. The province's economy has quadrupled since It is especially dominant in the service and agriculture sectors of Pakistan's economy.

With its contribution ranging from It is also a major manpower contributor because it has the largest pool of professionals and highly skilled technically trained manpower in Pakistan.

Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialised province of Pakistan; [13] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods.

Despite its tropical wet and dry climate , extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world.

Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane , millet , corn , oilseeds , pulses , vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo.

Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting.

Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.

Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. There are 39, small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14, The ginning industries are 6, There are 7, units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.

Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.

Industrial estates are being developed by Punjab government to boost industrialization in province , Quaid e Azam Business Park Sheikhupura is one of the industrial area which is being developed near Sheikhupura on Lahore-Islamabad motorway.

Punjab is also a mineral-rich province with extensive mineral deposits of coal, iron, gas, petrol, rock salt with the second largest salt mine in the world , dolomite , gypsum , and silica-sand.

The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundred economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

The incidence of poverty differs between the different regions of Punjab. Those living in Southern and Western Punjab are also a lot more dependent on agriculture due to lower levels of industrialisation in those regions.

The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 40 years see the table below. Punjab has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.

Sources: [88] [89]. Punjab has been the cradle of civilisation since time immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over years ago.

Ancient Taxila , another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts.

The ancient Hindu Katasraj temple and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and are in need of repair. Mosques abound all over Punjab and vary in architectural style.

Calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam AD at Multan are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy.

A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan is of a richer and more elaborate nature.

The pictured wall of Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world. The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints , who spread Islam and preached and lived the Muslim way of life.

People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions.

These mainly fall in the following categories:. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals.

Melas are also held to mark these occasions. The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi saints are called urs. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint.

On these occasions, devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy.

The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The shrine of Heer Ranjha in Jhang is one of the most visited shrines in Punjab.

Exhibitions and annual horse shows in all districts and a national horse and cattle show at Lahore are held with the official patronage.

The national horse and cattle show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronises agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the province with its strong rural roots.

Vaisakhi, also called Besakhi, is a harvest festival to celebrate harvesting the wheat crop. Colourful festivals are held at the time of Besakhi when farmers are free to enjoy their leisure time.

Basant is a seasonal festival and is celebrated as a spring festival of kites. The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts.

The province is home to several historical sites, including the Shalimar Gardens , the Lahore Fort , the Badshahi Mosque , the Rohtas Fort and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa.

The Anarkali Market and Jahangir 's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore as is the Lahore Museum , while the ancient city of Taxila in the northwest was once a major centre of Buddhist and Hindu influence.

Several important Sikh shrines are in the province, including the birthplace of the first Guru , Guru Nanak.

The Khewra Salt Mine is a tourist attraction. Tours are accompanied by guides as the mine itself is very large and the complex interconnected passages are like a maze.

There is a small but beautiful mosque inside the mine made from salt stone. A clinical ward with 20 beds was established in [97] [98] for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases using salt therapy.

Classical music forms, such as Pakistani classical music , are an important part of the cultural wealth of the Punjab. The Muslim musicians have contributed a large number of ragas to the repository of classical music.

The most common instruments used are the tabla and harmonium. Alam Lohar has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from until Folk songs and dances of the Punjab reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons.

Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Folklore songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in the various Punjabi dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah , Dhola and Boliyan.

According to Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level.

There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan".

Sacred Heart Cathedral , Lahore. Shalimar Gardens. Minar e Pakistan. Faisalabad Clock Tower. Faisalabad Railway Station.

Taxila is a World Heritage Site. Samadhi of Ranjit Singh. Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat. Tilla Jogian Jhelum, considered sacred by Hindus and scenic peak in Punjab.

Taxila University is one of the oldest known universities in the world and it was the chief learning centre in ancient India.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Province of Pakistan. This article is about the Pakistani province of Punjab. For the geographical region, see Punjab.

For other uses of the name, see Punjab disambiguation. Province in Pakistan. Punjabi , Saraiki , Urdu , Pothohari. Main article: History of Punjab.

Main article: Maratha conquest of North-west India. Main article: Sikh Empire. Main article: Punjab Province British India. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Punjabi Muslims and List of populated places in Punjab. See also: Languages of Pakistan. Further information: Punjabi dialects and Punjabi Language Movement.

Languages of Punjab Census [64] Punjabi. Religions in Punjab [77] Religion Percent Islam. Main article: Government of Punjab Pakistan.

Main article: Divisions of Pakistan. Main article: Districts of Pakistan. Districts of Punjab, Pakistan.

Provincial capital: Lahore. Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan. Lahore Nankana Sahib Qasur Sheikhupura. Khanewal Lodhran Multan Vehari.

Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi. Okara Pakpattan Sahiwal. Bhakkar Khushab Mianwali Sargodha. Main article: Economy of Punjab, Pakistan.

Main article: Punjabi culture.

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